There's a few steps involved in your connection.
Every device connected to the internet is assigned an IP address when you connect. When you connect with your phone or computer or chosen device, your ISP assigns you an IP Address so you can browse, shop, and navigate the internet.
Who created Internet Protocol (IP) addresses?
Vint Cerf the “father of the internet” was one of the creators of IP addresses. He created it while working for the US Department of Defense's Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).
Code.org and Mr. Cerf explain the creation of IP address.
There are a few organizations involved in IP addresses.
ICAAN - The Internet Corporation for Names & Numbers - They’re the top level and they govern over IP - the internet protocol, and run the policies behind it.
From there it flows down to IANA - Internet Assigned Numbers Authority. IANA is a department of ICAAN that co-ordinates and maintains the number systems that keep the internet running like IP addresses & DNS.
Next step is region specific organizations that hold onto the IP addresses that provide registration and management of them, North America for example is ARIN.
Once at ARIN, ISPs (Internet Service Providers) or organizations can contact them to register an IP address or a block of IP addresses which is where you come in.
You then purchase a connection from an ISP or head to your local Starbucks and connect to the internet - voila!
IPv4 addresses were distributed from ICANN through IANA and then through to your regional internet registry where your ISP or company can coordinate from there and you connect to it!
Some organizations govern their own block of IP addresses
Based on that the internet was originally used by the US Military it makes sense on these and with IPv6 there are whole blocks that are taken up by Google, Facebook and the like as the original IP spec and those IPv4 blocks were handed out in the 90s.